In the Nano network, the PR nodes are the equivalent of the mining pools in the PoW networks and are responsible for voting for transactions.
Wallets that delegate their vote are like miners joining mining pools.
Voting is continuously redistributed between nodes with transactions and the delegation of owners of each individual account can be changed at any time.
In Nano, consensus is reached through a vote and not through the PoW. When quorum is reached, the block is confirmed.
A node can send any number of transactions by making a proof of work for each and this proof of work is the main anti-spam system on the network.
There is currently no simple solution to spam that does not involve the use of PoW-based disincentives or the possible introduction of fees.
Create qualification tiers that depend on several factors:
Base Tier: nodes that do not reach the PR level can only transmit transactions with a high PoW level (e.g. PoW x 10,000)
Principal Tier: PR nodes subject to an intermediate PoW level. (e.g. PoW x 100)
Operator Tier: Nodes enabled by the PR vote and identified by a cryptographic signature with a public / private key or by a digital certificate (eg wallet managers, exchanges, payment processors, etc.). This key is manually entered into an optional list that can be enabled in the node configuration file. When the signature gets quorum, the node can create and send blocks with low or zero PoW.
The PoW remains residual only as a disincentive towards nodes that do not reach the consent of the users or that are not invested or even economically involved in the network.
Consensus remains based on voting and quorums.
The recognition of the role of Operator also depends on a consensus among the managers of the main nodes, it is a recognition of one's role.
At any time, when delegate votes change, users can decide to revoke permissions. Thus occurs the natural demotion of the malicious actors.
There is no user censorship, all nodes can continue to send infinite transactions each with their own PoW level.
Nano is environmentally friendly and aims to be a lightweight, highly efficient and cost-effective network.
This measure is not sufficient in case of grid saturation and must in any case be combined with other methodologies to guarantee a sustainable grid.
The signature that identifies the Operator node is an additional field, it requires additional time and an additional vote.